Human Resource management is an important part in 5 M’s of management. It is very essential to understand the way of Evolution of Human Resource Management. Here we are trying to explain the Evolution of Human Resource Management in a simplest way.
Among the 5 ‘m’ of management HR is the only living M and without the co-ordination of which, other ‘M’ cannot work effectively. If we manage this Human Resource properly you can get efficient outcome from other non human resources. Hence it is necessary for every person in the organization to know the concept and importance of human resource management.
Meaning of Human Resource Management:-
“HRM involves all mgmt. decisions & actions that affect the relationship between the organization & employees –its human resource.”
Human Resource management is considered as one of the crucial task of any organization in today’s competitive environment. But the history about how this concept of HRM is evolved or gained its importance is very interesting. Let us discuss the evolution of HRM here.
In starting of 19th century there was a boom in industrialization which influences the need of personal management. But there was no separate department to take care of labour problems except welfare officers that too who care about women & children only.
Various phases faced by HRM
During the 1st world was there was a expected growth for Personnel Management. The welfare officers were increased. During this period the women were recruited in large numbers as most of the men were joint the militaries
The first phase of labour management came in 1920 in factories to handle absenteeism etc
In mid of 1920’s to 1930’s there were employer who care their employees well being by themselves e.g. Tata steel in Jamshedpur.
In between 2nd world war the personnel management faced an improving stage because the government has to produce large war material then personnel department worked in full time basis.
After independence the Role of Personnel management becomes inevitable in Industries it played functions like Collective Bargaining, Industrial Relations, HR Policies etc
In 1930’s the HRM started due to various reason like
1. View Point about doing works
2. Legislative frame work
3. Government policies
4. Trade unions.
5. Concepts in management
6. Change in economy
In 1990 government of various countries liberalized their policy due to which the human started moving from one nation to another. So the need for HRM evolved as cross culture took place. Due to this the recruitment becomes more specific were in selection is based on talent regardless of nationality.
Evolution of HRM in India
The Evolution of human resource management in India can be summarized as:
|Period||Development Status||Emphasis on||Status|
|1920 – 1930||Beginning||Statutory Welfare||Clerical|
|1940 – 1960||Struggling for recognition||Introduction of Techniques||Administrative|
|1970 – 1980||Achieving Superiority||Regulatory Conforming Imposition of std on other functions||Managerial|
Apart from this it could be said that HRM had to cross various phases before reaching to this responsible position like Industrial Revolution Era – Scientific Management Era – Paternalistic Era – Industrial Psychology Era –Human Relations Era – Behavioural Science Era –Personnel Specialists Era –Welfare Era etc..
There are many people in the field of management who were contributed to the development of HRM by the various researches conducted by them or theory proposed by them to name few FW Taylor , Robert Owen , Hugo Munsterberg , Maslow, Herzberg, Elton Mayo etc…
The human resource management at different phases is been named differently such as Personnel management, Industrial Relation department, Human Resources management, Human Resources Development, Human Capital Management, Strategic Human Resources Management respectively